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Some of the Sources of Finance Discussed

Some of the Sources of Finance Discussed

Sources of Finance

Sources of Finance for companies are stocks, debt, bonds, retained earnings, term loans, loans for working capital, letters of credit, euro issues, risk financing, etc. These Sources of Finance are using in different situations. They are classifying according to period, ownership and control, and their source of production. It is ideal to evaluate each source of Finance before opting for it.

Sources of Finance are the most explorable area, especially for entrepreneurs about to start a new business. Perhaps the most challenging part of the entire endeavor. Although, There are different sources of capital, which we can categorize according to various parameters.

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Some of the Sources of Finance

Choosing the right source and the right mix of financing is a significant challenge for every finance manager. And also, The process of selecting the appropriate funding source involves a thorough analysis of each funding source. To analyze and compare quotations, it is necessary to understand all the characteristics of the origins of financing. There are many characteristics based on which funding sources are classified.

Long-term Sources of Finance

Long-term financing means capital necessities for more than five years to 10, 15, 20 years, or more depending on other factors. Capital expenditures on fixed assets such as plants and machinery, land and buildings, etc., of companies are Finance with long-term sources of Finance. Some of the working capital that remains in the business permanently is also financing from long-term sources of funds. Long-term funding sources can take the form of any of the following:

  • Capital stock or participation shares
  • Preferred capital or preferred shares
  • Retained earnings or internal accruals
  • Obligations / Bonds
  • Term loans from financial institutions, governments, and commercial banks
  • Business financing
  • Asset securitization
  • International financing by issuance in euros, loans in foreign currency, ADR, RDA, etc.

Medium-Term Sources of Finance

Medium-term financing refers to financing over 3 to 5 years and is generally using for two reasons. First, when long-term capital is not available at this time, and second, when deferred income expenses are complete, such as advertisements, and must be amortized over 3-5 years. Medium-term funding sources can take the form of any of the following:

  • Preferred capital or preferred shares
  • Obligations / Bonds
  • Medium-term loans of
  • Financial institutions
  • Government and
  • Commercial banks
  • Lease financing
  • Contracting of purchase financing

Short-Term Financing Sources

Short-term financing means financing for less than one year. The need for short-term financing arises to finance a company’s current assets, such as a catalog of raw materials and finished products, accounts receivable, minimum cash and bank balance, etc. Short-term financing is also called working capital financing. Short-term financing is available in the form of:

  • Commercial credit
  • Short-term loans, such as commercial bank working capital loans.
  • Fixed deposits period of 1 year or less
  • Advances received from clients
  • Creditors
  • Debts
  • Factoring services
  • Discount on invoices, etc.

Owned Capital

Equity also refers to equity. It obtains its supplies from company promoters or the general public by issuing new shares. And also, The champions start the business by providing the money needed for the start-up. Here are the sources of equity capital:

  • Capital
  • Preference
  • Retained earnings
  • Convertible bonds
  • Venture capital fund or private capital
  • It is long-term capital. That is, it remains in the company for the long term.
  • There is no charge to pay interest or fees as the principal borrowed. Therefore, the risk of bankruptcy also decreases. Young companies prefer equity for this reason.

Borrowed Capital

Borrowed or debit capital is financing obtained from external sources. These sources of debt include the following:

  • Financial institutions,
  • Commercial banks or
  • The general public in the event of obligations
  • There is no reduction in the ownership and control of the business.
  • The cost of borrowed funds is low because it is a tax-deductible expense that saves on corporate taxes.
  • It gives the company the advantage of leverage.

Internal Sources

The internal source of capital is that generated internally by the company. These are the following:

  • Retained earnings
  • Reduction or control of working capital
  • And also, Sale of assets, etc.

The internal Sources of Finance have the same characteristics as equity. The best part about internal sourcing capital is that the business grows independently and doesn’t depend on third parties. The disadvantages of equity and debt are not present in this form of financing. Neither ownership is diluting nor the risk of fixed bond/bankruptcy arises.

External Sources

One source of external funding is capital generated outside the business. Apart from internal funding sources, all sources are external sources.

Deciding on the right source of funds is a critical business decision made by senior CFOs. Using the wrong source increases the cost of funds, which would directly impact the viability of the project in question. Although, An inappropriate match of the type of capital to the needs of the business can adversely affect the company’s proper functioning. For example, suppose the fixed assets, profitable after 2 years, are financed by short-term financing. In that case, a cash flow mismatch will be generated after one year, and the manager will again have to seek funding and pay the costs. To raise capital. Again.

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